Terms and Pillars of Fasting
Terms and Pillars of Fasting
Mandatory Term Fasting
Terms of obligatory fasting, namely:
(3) already baligh,and
(4) are aware of the necessity of fasting.
Fasting is obligatory requirement :
Mandatory requirement penunaian fasting, meaning that when he found a certain time, then he bears the obligation of fasting. Terms are as follows.
(1) Healthy, not in a state hospital.
(2) Settling, not in a state bersafar. The second proposition of this requirement is the word of Allah, the Exalted,
ومن كان مريضا أو على سفر فعدة من أيام أخر
“And whoever is ill or on the way (and he is breaking), then (wajiblah fast for him), as many days left, on the other days” (Surat al-Baqara: 185). Both these conditions are included in the mandatory requirement penunaian fasting and not fasting and not a legitimate requirement mandatory requirement qodho ‘fasting. Because the mandatory requirement of fasting penunaian here fall on the sick and those who bersafar. When they were not fasting at the time, then they qodho ‘based on the consensus of the scholars. But if they remain abstinent in such circumstances, they remain valid fasting.
(3) Holy of menstruation and childbirth. The proof is the hadeeth of Mu’adzah, he never asked ‘A’isha radi’ anha. Hadith is,
عن معاذة قالت سألت عائشة فقلت ما بال الحائض تقضى الصوم ولا تقضى الصلاة فقالت أحرورية أنت قلت لست بحرورية ولكنى أسأل. قالت كان يصيبنا ذلك فنؤمر بقضاء الصوم ولا نؤمر بقضاء الصلاة.
From Mu’adzah he said, “I asked Aisha, saying, ‘Why on earth women who menstruated mengqadha’ fasting and not mengqadha ‘prayers?” Then She said,’ Are you from the class of Haruriyah? ‘I replied,’ I’m not Haruriyah, but I’m just asking. ‘He replied,’ We were also having periods, then we were ordered to mengqadha ‘fasting and not ordered to mengqadha’ pray ‘. ” Based on the consensus of the scholars Similarly, women who are in a state of menstruation and childbirth are not compulsory and mandatory fasting mengqodho ‘fasting.
Fasting of Legal Terms
Terms validity of fasting there are two, namely:
(1) In a state of purity from menstruation and childbirth. These Terms are the terms affected by the obligation of fasting and fasting as well as legitimate requirement.
(2) Intend. Intention is a legitimate requirement of fasting because fasting is worship, while worship is not valid unless the intention as worship to another. Theorem of this is the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam,
إنما الأعمال بالنيات
“Surely every charity that depends on the intention.”
Intention of this fasting should be done to distinguish with other hungry. Hunger could be just a habit, in order to diet, or because of illness and should be distinguished from fasting is worship.
However, all readers need to know that the intention was not pronounced (dilafadzkan). Because that is the intention of the will to do something and the intention is located in the heart. May God have mercy on An-Nawawi rahimahullah great scholars in Syafi’iyah-who said,
لا يصح الصوم إلا بالنية ومحلها القلب ولا يشترط النطق بلا خلاف
“It is not legitimate unless someone with the intention of fasting. Location of intention is in the heart, is not required to say. This problem is there is no dispute among the scholars. ”
Syafi’iyah other clerics, rahimahullah Syarbini Ash said,
ومحلها القلب, ولا تكفي باللسان قطعا, ولا يشترط التلفظ بها قطعا كما قاله في الروضة
“Intention is located in the heart and no need at all dilafazhkan. Intention at all tidakk required to dilafazhkan as stated by An Nawawi in Ar Roudhoh. ”
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said,
والنية محلها القلب باتفاق العلماء; فإن نوى بقلبه ولم يتكلم بلسانه أجزأته النية باتفاقهم
“Intention is located in the heart according to the consensus scholars. If someone intends in his heart without his lafazhkan with his verbal, then the intention was considered valid based on the consensus of the scholars. ”
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah also explained, “Anyone who wants to do something, then for sure he had intended. Such as in front of her proffered food, and he had no desire to eat, then when it surely he had intended. Similarly, when he wanted to drive or perform other actions. Even if a person is burdened with a practice and then say do not intend, then this really is a load that is impossible. Because every man will do a practice which is prescribed or not prescribed must have preceded his knowledge in his heart, this is called intention. ”
Mandatory Intend Before Dawn
The proof is the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar radi’ anhuma Hafshoh-wife of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa-sallam, the Prophet sallallaahu’ alaihi wa sallam said,
من لم يجمع الصيام قبل الفجر فلا صيام له
“Anyone who does not intend before dawn, the fast is not valid.”
This provision is a mandatory requirement of fasting by scholars Malikiyah, Syafi’iyah and Hambali. What is meant by going on every night of the sinking sun was beginning to dawn.
As for the Sunnah of fasting may intend after dawn by a majority of scholars. It can be seen from the actions of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. Argument of the matter is the hadith ‘The following Aisha. ‘Aisha said,
دخل على النبى – صلى الله عليه وسلم – ذات يوم فقال «هل عندكم شىء». فقلنا لا. قال «فإنى إذا صائم». ثم أتانا يوما آخر فقلنا يا رسول الله أهدى لنا حيس. فقال «أرينيه فلقد أصبحت صائما». فأكل.
“One day, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam came to me and asked,” Do you have food? “We replied,” None. “He said,” Well, I would fast. “Then he came again on another day and we said, “O Messenger of Allah, we have been given the gift of HAIs (foods made from dates, cumin and cheese).” Then he said, “Bring here, actually from this morning I’ve been fasting.” An Nawawi rahimahullah said, “This is a proposition for the majority of scholars, that may be intended in the afternoon before the time zawal (sun shifts to the west) in the Sunnah of fasting.”Here the intention bolehnya required during the day ie before the intention not make up for fasting. If he had make up for prior intention (at noon), the fast is not valid. It is no discord in it.
This intention should be renewed every day. Because fasting every day in the month of Ramadan each day stands alone, unrelated to one another, and not too fast in one day ruin another day of fasting. This differs from the rak’ah in prayer.
Ramadan fasting intention should be stated (jazm) that would intend to Ramadan fasting. So, should not someone going in a state of hesitation, like he said, “If tomorrow the 1st of Ramadan, that I exert obligatory fast. If not the first of Ramadan, I intend fasting Sunnah “. Such intent is not allowed because he was not the clear intention of fasting. The intention it should also be devoted (dita’yin) for the fasting of Ramadan fasting alone should not be for another.
Pillars of Fasting
Based on the agreement of the clergy, fasting is to refrain from various Invalidate fasting from dawn (the dawn shodiq) until sunset . This is based on the word of Allah Ta’ala,
وكلوا واشربوا حتى يتبين لكم الخيط الأبيض من الخيط الأسود من الفجر ثم أتموا الصيام إلى الليل
“And you eat and drink until the white thread of light from the black thread of the dawn. Then complete your fast till (come) night. “(Surat al-Baqara: 187). The meaning of the verse is, daylight and darkness and is not intended as an essential thread.
Of ‘Adi bin Hatim when it comes down surah Al Baqarah verse 187, the Prophet sallallaahu’ alaihi wa sallam said to him,
إنما ذاك بياض النهار من سواد الليل
“The meaning is the daylight from the darkness of night”. The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said like that in’ Adi bin Hatim since before he took two black and white thread. Then he looked up when a white thread from a black thread, but apparently not being visible. Then he told them at the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, then he also laughed at the behavior of’ Adi bin Hatim.