The Lawgiver, Allah has prescribed the minimum amount that is obligatory for Zakat in different ranges of properties, and that the minimum is known as nisaab. The reason for nisaab is to ensure that no one is forced to give Zakat of what he or she has not, and there is no need to Zakat wealth. Nisaab is also an insurance against the tyranny of the state to tax the poor and needy, or as happens in many countries. Nisaab is a point of reference for the average Muslim is not sure whether he possesses the minimum wealth on which Zakat is mandatory. The rich do not have to worry about the Nisaab. Zakat is obligatory in all their richness and must be paid at the end of the period set for their Zakat.
The Nisaab will not be valid unless it fulfills two conditions:
1) The amount that must be reached Nisaab excess or surplus known as “faadil” on their basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, transportation, tools and equipment that is used in the business world. The essential elements for life are exempt from Zakat.
Although what constitutes nisaab can change from one country to another, the amount that is necessary for the basic needs of life in different countries is very similar, because the market determines the prices, if it is an official market or the unofficial market. In poorer countries people do without or live below the poverty standard, which is why many go hungry or without basic necessities.
However, we must realize that Zakat is an act of worship (ebadah) like Salaat. The intentional element (niyyah) is necessary, and we should not rely too heavily on state agencies to determine for us the needs of our religious duty. The so-called the “consumption basket” (ie the level of poverty, as determined by the administration of social security that is updated each fiscal year) may not be the same as what Islam considers minimum Nisaab.
In industrialized countries, the consumption basket may include items that are not necessarily essential, as entertainment, clothing more variety of food, eating out or eating at home, in possession of more than one machine rather than having three cars in the driveway , drinking water instead of fruit juices, eating regular food or special food “health”. For this reason I believe it is essential not to lose site of the fact that the zakat is ebadah of wealth, such as salat and fasting. Muslims can not take into account all the things mentioned above as essential elements, while Muslims will not. In fact, not all Muslims of good reputation will try to hide behind the label of the consumption basket in order to evade zakat.
Nisaab eliminates the possibility of injustice or unfair treatment of those who pay Zakat. Suggest that if we do not follow the rules of the International Monetary Fund or the arbitrary figures of social security administration or department of agriculture will do injustice to the Zakat payer is ridiculous.
2) Nisaab must mature, that money is not liable for Zakat unless it’s been a whole year in possession of a person. This is the understanding of most scholars. Imam Abu Hanifah (RAA) said: “What must be considered is the existence of nisaab at the beginning and end of the Zakat established by the debtor.” It does not matter if the money nisaab increases or decreases during the calendar year, as will be explained later.
This condition does not include agricultural products, because it is due the day they are grown. Allah (SWT) said: “… But making allowances that are the very day that the harvest is gathered …” (Al-Qur’an, 6: 141) According to Imam al-`Abadi, (AAR) Zakat money is of two kinds: one which by its nature can not be invested in this category and Zakat is due at the time of harvest. This includes all agricultural products that is responsible for Zakat. The other is wealth that can be invested in the hope of a good return, like cash, gold or silver, because the chance is there that the cash in hand can be invested for a good return. This includes investments in foreign currency, goods and livestock. Their Zakat is not due until they have matured in a year.
The proof of this condition is the Hadith reported by Ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah (saws) said. “He who buys the property is not liable for zakat on it until a year passes” According to Ibn Rushd (CEOS ) this is the understanding of most scholars, including the four rightly guided Khalifahs.
The condition of maturity annual term applies to raw materials on which the Legislature has said is due Zakat, and that includes silver, gold, modern paper currency and livestock. Paper money is similar to silver, therefore, takes the case of silver. There is no Zakat on wages, earned income from wage earners or professionals or independent contractors until such money matures in one year. There is no such thing as paying your Zakat on the day on which you receive your pay. What you should know is that the wage he or she can purify the money to charity (sadaqah) every time you cash the paycheck. Allah (SWT) says: “And in their wealth and possessions (was remembered) the right of the needy who asks and who (for some reason) was prevented (from asking).” (Al-Qur’an 51: 19).
We can deduce from the concept of “maturity annual” wealth on which zakat is due as encouraging, among other things, the rescue by paying the Zakat, and increases the chances of eradicating poverty, because if the poor receives its share Zakat will be the legitimate possibility that he may take the money and invest and become a Zakat Zakat payer instead of recipient. This opportunity will be lost if it receives a few dollars each month Zakat. To say that the wage earner takes home only his check and spends all of the needs and living check to check with nothing on it, a person is eligible for Zakat.
Using agricultural products as analogous to salary for Zakat analogy is wrong. As Imam al-`Abadi said, these are two different categories of money. $ 2, 500.00 in cash may be invested by the person and expect a good return, while it will be difficult to invest a bushel of wheat. Can be traded as a commodity, which is what it is. This is because we know that analogy has rules that must be followed before being applied. Certainly the jurists are unanimous that earned income, known as al-almal mustafadah, should be added to existing money and wait until that amount reaches maturity and then give their zakat, or if there is no money to hand the time you have this money, he or she must wait a full year before assessing it for Zakat.
Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam and a vital element in the religion of Islam. And ‘the twin sister of Salaat. Al-Quran, Allah (SWT) said: “So establish regular prayer and give alms to adjust, and obey the Messenger, you may receive mercy.” (Al-Qur’an 24: 56) Furthermore, “… establish regular prayer and give alms to adjust, and loan to Allah a beautiful loan ….” (Al-Quran an, 73: 20) “And I have been commanded no more than this: to worship God, offering him sincere devotion, being true (in faith), to establish regular prayer and practice regular charity, and that is religion just and righteous. “(Al-Quran an, 98: 5)
In a famous Hadith reported by Umar bin Khattab (RAA), the Messenger of Allah (saws) responded to Jibreel (as) and said: “… Islam is to testify that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to perform the prayer, pay zakat, to observe the fast of Ramadan, and to make pilgrimage to the house of Allah if you are able to do os ….” (Bukhari, Muslim)
There is consensus among Muslim scholars that it is obligatory for every believer who is financially able. Whoever knowingly denies this obligation, while he possesses the minimum amount, would be considered a disbeliever and a renegade from Islam. Whoever is stingy, or tries to cheat, is considered among the wrongdoers. Zakat is compulsory on four categories of items.
1. Agricultural products including seeds and fruits, such as wheat, barley, rice, dates, raisins, cocoa, pistachio, coffee, cashews. Allah (SWT) said: “O you who believe, given the good things you have (honor) he earned, and the fruits of the earth that we created for you …” (Al-Qur’an, 2: 267) And again: “… But making allowances that are the very day that the harvest is gathered …” (Al-Qur’an, 6: 141) Thus, these two verses and many others indicate that zakat is due on agricultural products that have reached the minimum amount (nisaab). No farm product is liable for Zakat unless it is a product which is considered as food and can be stored or saved naturally without refrigeration. If the product is perishable fruits, like grapes, there is no Zakat. But if one sells them to pay their Zakat on the profit earned during the aging process.
The nisaab is 612 pounds, which equals 1,346.40 lb. There is no zakat on products which is less than that amount. If the agricultural products or crops grow dependent on rainwater, or without a job, any man or irrigation, Zakat is due to one-tenth of the total. If irrigation has increased, the Zakat is payable half of a tenth of the total production. There is no Zakat on fruits like apples or oranges or vegetables which are perishable and require refrigeration for storage for a long time, but should be considered as any income if the profit from their sale reaches the amount of Zakat, then Zakat should be given.
2. Cattle, including camels, cows, sheep and goats that graze freely and are raised for trade and production. For Zakat to be obligatory, the number must reach the nisaab. The nisaab is five camels, 30 cows, sheep and goats, 40. Freely grazing means the animals go to feed without the owner’s acquisition or bringing food or hay. If there is a grazing animal, there is no Zakat in stock alone. The stock, however, be considered as articles of commerce, then will be assessed for Zakat as articles of commerce, when the profit earned from their sale reaches the amount alone or in combination with other craft items.
3. Goods and goods of trade and commerce. This includes everything that is obtained for the activity of buying and selling: land, animals, food supplies, fabrics, machinery, spare parts, etc. This inventory is evaluated annually and assessed for Zakat, if the value is the same as the ‘ amount spent on it, more or less. The owners of grocery stores, like any other business, the evaluation of each element and give their Zakat. Simple stock accounts, orders, cash and receivables, which is not delinquent loans, give a good overview of Zakatable. But if one is not able to explain everything in the store or shop, you should consider according to his abilities until he is sure that his conscience is clear.
There is no zakat on what is inside your home or property which includes food, drinks, furniture, houses, animals, cars, clothes and shoes. The only exception is gold and silver. There is no Zakat on assets from rentals or lease, whether residential units, taxis, etc. That is, there is no Zakat on apartment units, bus or rental car company such as yellow taxis or trucks for rental or equipment. But there is zakat on income or income from these assets if you rent these resources reach the executable amount, either alone or in combination with other activities.
Many scholars are of the opinion that any business that brings no return for the entrepreneur or investor should be assessed for Zakat. If the task has a prescribed nisaab, such as gold, silver or paper, which is applied for Zakat nisaab. But if the company did not declare nisaab, his is the nisaab nisaab of Commerce, one of the reasons is that most businesses are regarded as commerce and because, in reality, not the fictitious name of business, such as GM, Apple or GE that is taxed to the Zakat, is the individual investor. Do not set this collaboration IBM, Apple, GM or Rajihy Bank, but individual investors, shareholders and owners of these companies.
In fact, there are sufficient rules in books Zakat to cover all types of activities, whether in cash or investment risk. If the activity is similar to the trade, must be assessed the same rate of trade. To refer the business to a different rate of 10% Zakat, which is the rate of agricultural products, instead of its correct rate of 2.5%, the rate of commerce, is unfair and unjustified. In addition, there is no evidence, even weak, to justify this unfair arbitrary taxation. The difference between 2.5% and 10% is high. The Zakat system is not like a state revenue collection, but Allah `ebadah. However, if a businessman decides to give more than 2.5% net of all expenses, including depreciation, Allah (SWT) will accept it from him.
4. Gold and silver, used for trade or jewelry. Allah (SWT) says: “… And there are those who bury gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah, announce to them a more serious penalty on the Day when heat will be produced by the (wealth). Into the fire hell, and with it will be branded on their foreheads, their flanks and rear This is the (treasure) which you buried for you. taste, then the (treasures) is buried. ” (Al-Qur’an, 9, 34-35). From hoarding is defined as the refusal to give in the way of Allah, which includes Zakat.
In a hadith reported by Abu Hurairah (RAA), the Messenger of Allah (saws) said: “For the owner or possessor of gold and silver, which does not meet the requirement, the Day of Resurrection will be cast into sheets of fire and to be branded on the forehead, sides and rear. Each time it cools, it is for him to be repeated in a day whose length is the length of 50 thousand years, until the decision is made among the people. “(Muslim) . With its duty is intended to evaluate the Zakat. In another version: “. No owner of a treasure that does not give his Zakat”
Zakat is compulsory on gold and silver, irrespective of its form: for rent coins, raw or nugget, or jewelry to wear, or, because of the generality of the evidence of zakat, without any details. In a report by Abdullah bin `Amr bin` Aas (CEOS), said that a woman came to the Messenger of Allah with his daughter. On the wrist of her daughter were two heavy gold bracelets. The Messenger asked, “Do you want to pay zakat on this?” She replied: “No.” The Messenger said: “I pray that Allah will surround you with two bracelets of fire?” The reporter commented that took them and threw them in front of the Messenger and said: “. They are for Allah and His Messenger” (Ahmad, Tirmidhi).
The wife of the Messenger reported that: “The Messenger entered my house and I saw in his hand a huge ring of silver, so he asked,` What is this’ I said, `I made them to beautify myself to you, O Messenger of Allah. ‘Churches, `Do you want to give their Zakat?’ I said, ‘No,’ or` Allah willing. ‘He said: `There is enough in the fire of hell'” (Abu Dawuud) ..
Zakat is due on gold when it reaches the amount of (nisaab), which is 20 Dinaar. According to a hadith, the Messenger said, “No zakat is due on you until it reaches 20 dinaar”. (Abu Dawud) The Islamic dinaar (money) is a mithqal, a unit of weight which weighs four and a quarter of a gram. Thus, the nisaab is 85 grams. This is equal to $ 30.00 U.S. dollars.
Similarly, there is no Zakat on silver, up to five oqiyah, because the Messenger said. “There is no Zakat on less than five oqiyah” (Muslim / Bukhari) Oqiyah is equal to forty Islamic dirhams. The nisaab is 200 dirhams. One dirham is equivalent to 595 grams. The amount Zakatable both gold and silver is only one quarter of one tenth.
There Zakat of modern paper money, because it is equivalent to silver. During the early days of Islam, silver and gold were the currency exchange dirhams minted in dinaar for silver and gold. Silver, not gold, had a wider circulation. So many scholars are of the opinion that silver should be the standard for today’s paper currency because it is more beneficial to the Zakat payer, as it raises the minimum nisaab, while gold is down. Although both metals are not popular, are still regarded as a guarantee against ever fluctuating paper money.
Silver should be used as a standard for assessing Zakat every year, paper money, even if the currency is hard currency like the U.S. dollar, Yen and Deutch Mark or Pound. Because these currencies are backed by political decisions that may not have anything to do with the economy, the value and strength of this paper money depends largely on all haram usury system of interest rates.
Thus, the Zakat payer should seek financial or business section of the local newspaper for the price of silver is currently about $ 3.82. per ounce. The nisaab, then, is 596 x 0.04 = 28.80 ounces multiplied by $ 3.82 = 90.91. so. The nisaab is about $ 100.00, from December 17, 1991.
The nisaab should be based on market value of the coin. If money is hard currency, there will be no problem, but if money is a non-negotiable currency, as most of the currencies in third world countries, the nisaab should be based on the black market, which realistically reflects the value Currency of the money market. In any case, the rate of silver should be used to assess the Zakat.
If the nisaab is determined, the amount Zakatable is 2.5%, or 0.025 multiplied by the amount. For example, if the amount is $ 56,000.00 will be Zakatable 56,000. x 0.025 = $ 1,400.00.
Zakat is due to gold, silver and paper money, or whether it is cash on hand or credit in the hands of borrowers. Zakat is due to debt or cost of merchandize or rental money. If the borrower is a wealthy person that you know will pay off the debt, the creditor (which is halal free loan of usury) should include that money in the assessment and give its Zakat. However, you may delay Zakat on a loan until it receives the payment, then return the Zakat for the past years that he was able to assess for Zakat. If the borrower is poor or refuses to pay the debt, there is no Zakat on the money until the lender receives the money. Then assess for Zakat for one year past due, but there is zakat in the years before.
There is no Zakat on precious stones such as diamonds, uranium or metals like, regardless of value. Gold and silver, of course, are assessed for Zakat. However, if a person owns one of these stones or metals, which should give their zakat, as other articles of commerce. If a person possesses diamonds or other precious stones as an edge against inflation or for ornaments, there is no zakat on them.